YEAST BETA GLUCAN

Yeast Beta Glucan is a ‘biological response modifier’ by enhancing the activity of the immune system. Its function has been proved in a variety of research.

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Application of Yeast Beta-Glucans in Poultry Industry

Application of Yeast Beta-Glucans in Poultry Industry

Table of Contents

Introduction

One of the biggest and fastest-growing industries in the world is chicken, and the abundance of pathogenic microorganisms makes practical management difficult and results in large financial losses (Anwar et al., 2017). Yeast cell wall (YCW)-glucans are used in chicken’s feed to overcome the aforementioned constraints. The food containing β-glucans can improve growth performance (Cho et al., 2013), promote macrophage phagocytosis following bacterial infection (Chen et al., 2008), and lessen the severity of enteric pathogen infection (Huff et al., 2006; Shao et al., 2013).

Even at low doses, consumers generally accept that the use of yeast-glucans is more beneficial than antibiotics (Moon et al., 2016). Beta-glucans from the yeast cell wall and mushrooms promote both specific and non-specific immune responses and enhance the growth performance of chickens (Vetvicka and Vetvickova, 2014; Rajapakse et al., 2010) as well as enhance the meat quality. The use of poultry feeds supplemented with yeast and fungus derived (β-1,3) (β-1,6)—glucans have very useful effects (Stier et al., 2014).

Enhance immunity

Both the adaptive immune system and natural killer cells, which protect the host from viral infections, are commonly derived from lymphocytes. According to the most recent research, adding β-glucan to chicken could lessen or possibly totally replace antibiotics (Ding et al., 2019). So it is true that macrophage function is responsive to dietary β-glucans, and broiler chick phagocytic activity has been demonstrated to increase with dietary supplementation of β-glucans from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Guo et al., 2003).

Enhance resistance against pathogens

The immune system is the host defense system that protects it against diseases. Yeast β-glucans play an important role in the activation of both innate and adaptive immune systems. It has been demonstrated that adding yeast β-glucans to broiler chicken’s diets increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages (Guo et al., 2013; Lowry et al., 2005), suggesting that yeast β-glucans may be crucial in the activation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems in these animals. One important element of the non-specific immune system that they stimulate is the macrophage. Additionally, the lymphoid organs, which are the organs that create lymphocytes, grow bigger when yeast β-glucan is added to the broiler chicken diet (Guo et al., 2013).

Growth enhancement and performance

The yeast β-glucan dietary supplementation improves the growth by helping them to increase in body weight during growth stage of broilers (Cox et al. 2010b). It also enhances the digestion of broilers that helps to increase growth performance. It helps in relative increase of size and weight of various organs like spleen, bursa Fabricius, and thymus. It also helps in increase of red blood cells.  The use of diet supplemented with yeast-glucan is helpful if they have any bacterial infection (Guo et al., 2003; Huff et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2008; Morales-Lopez et al., 2009). However, it depends upon various factors like β-glucan source (species and strain), composition, purity, dosage, and type of pathogen it is infected (Zhang et al., 2008; Cox et al., 2010b).

Yeast glucan for reducing mold aflatoxins in feed

Feeds contaminated with molds contain high levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), T-2 toxin, zearalenone (ZEA) and some other toxins. Molds produce mycotoxins that seriously affects feed quality. Long-term feeding of livestock and poultry containing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) can cause liver damage, reduced growth performance and immune related responses. Mycotoxins contamination is a global problem, and its detoxification and detoxification methods has always been a hot topic of research. Yeast glucan can reduce the biological activity of toxins in animal digestive tract by a specific mechanism (Yiannikouis et al., 2004).  

A study shows that growth performance of broilers at low doses of mycotoxins in the diet have no apparent effect, but can cause swelling of the liver, heart and spleen, thymus and bursal atrophy, as well as, it can decrease serum total protein, albumin, and urea nitrogen concentrations. Addition of 0.05%~0.15% yeast glucan to moldy corn diets sugar, have no apparent effect on broiler performance (Table 1), organ index (Table 2 and 3) and serum as compared to the level of the control group, but there were differences between different dosages. Addition of 0.15% yeast glucan have significant effect. Study shows that yeast glucan can reduce the concentration of mold contaminated corn to a certain extent and its effect of mycotoxins on broilers, but the mechanism of action remains to be investigated further.

Table 1. Effects of yeast glucan on growth performance of broilers

ProjectTest period(d)Control groupMoldy feed groupTest group ITest group IITest group III
Weight (g)0
7
14
21
85.75±2.36
282.31±11.62
625.20±11.96
1057.33±46.76
85.81±3.75
281.14±10.90
621.93±16.25
1059.33±45.43
87.11±0.61
283.14±13.04
614.93±32.28
1070.67±64.38
86.69±0.62
288.03±6.94
633.60±14.22
1 081.33±38.42
86.50±0.84
285.47±6.53
609.97±27.99
1 032.67±50.56
Daily weight gain (g)0~7
7~14
14~21
28.61±1.11
48.56±0.86
63.28±4.14
27.70±1.12
48.51±1.55
61.15±5.28
28.51±1.42
48.47±3.73
66.66±3.65
28.93±0.82
49.39±1.47
64.78±2.91
28.72±0.57
48.68±1.63
62.84±1.51
 Daily feed intake (g)0~7
7~14
14~21
41.11±2.01
76.24±4.16
121.43±7.02
41.21±2.46
76.94±3.31
123.39±6.99
42.87±2.71
77.27±5.88
124.13±8.82
43.15±2.77
76.46±1.16
125.18±4.49
42.10±3.10
75.94±3.11
123.87±5.60
Material to weight ratio0~7
7~14
14~21
1.44±0.08
1.57±0.09
1.92±0.19
1.49±0.14
1.59±0.05
2.03±0.18
1.50±0.09
1.59±0.04
1.86±0.14
1.49±0.09
1.55±0.06
1.94±0.11
1.47±0.12
1.56±0.04
1.97±0.11
The data is sourced from www.cnki.net

Note: Different lowercase letters on the shoulders of the same line indicate significant difference (P<0.05), and the same letter or no letter indicates no significant difference (P>0.05). The table below is the same.

Table 2. The effect of yeast glucan on the relative weight of broiler chicken organs (g/kg)

ProjectTest period(d)Control groupMoldy feed groupTest group ITest group IITest group III
liver7
21
33.52±0.83a
23.56±1.69a
38.17±2.56b
26.50±2.41b
34.78±1.95a
22.05±1.37a
34.95±3.29a
22.99±3.14a
32.77±2.57a
21.29±1.92a
Kidney 7
21
9.45±1.00abc
7.33±0.77
10.78±1.32c
7.84±0.53
9.12±0.56ab
7.58±0.83
10.22±0.81bc
7.26±0.72
8.50±1.49a
7.31±0.76
Heart7
21
8.35±1.48
6.23±0.40a
8.76±0.99
7.27±0.78b
8.17±0.79
6.68±0.34ab
8.10±0.84
6.13±0.88a
8.22±0.18
6.09±0.33a
Pancreas7
21
3.53±0.10
2.11±0.20
3.58±0.24
2.32±0.21
3.50±0.37
2.19±0.23
3.57±0.18
2.24±0.12
3.62±0.38
2.18±0.22
The data is sourced from www.cnki.net

Table 3. The effect of yeast glucan on the relative weight of immune organs in broilers (g/kg)

ProjectTest period(d)Control groupMoldy feed groupTest group ITest group IITest group III
Spleen7
21
0.69±0.09a
0.81±0.12
0.95±0.18b
0.94±0.14
0.71±0.13a
0.84±0.17
0.71±0.12a
0.85±0.22
0.62±0.08a
0.85±0.27
Thymus 7
21
3.92±0.77
4.46±0.70
3.74±0.33
4.07±0.52
3.50±0.35
4.31±0.65
4.51±0.60
4.33±0.61
4.12±0.87
4.22±0.88
Bursa of Fabricius7
21
2.01±0.30
2.56±0.43ab
1.75±0.34
2.01±0.35a
2.00±0.28
2.33±0.66ab
2.25±0.51
2.71±0.83ab
2.16±0.33
3.23±1.06b
The data is sourced from www.cnki.net

About Hiyeast Beta-glucan

Hiyeast is a professional yeast beta-glucan manufacturer that supplies a purity of up to 70%; its yeast beta-glucan is Organic Certified Yeast Beta Glucan from baker’s yeast. 

About Hiyeast

Hiyeast is a professional yeast beta-glucan manufacturer that supplies high-quality products. The yeast beta-glucan of Hiyeast is Organic Certified Yeast Beta Glucan from baker’s yeast. Hiyeast’s products are standardize according to HPLC and USP standard test. Hiyeast products are easily available in the European and American markets and have good market value.

Hiyeast aims to bring healthy and natural products to the world, nutritional and sensory properties of food and beverages with an internal team of microbiologists, food applications specialists, and yeast experts.

For more information about yeast beta-glucan, contact our team.

References

Anwar, M. I., F. Muhammad, M. M. Awais, and M. Akhtar. “A review of β-glucans as a growth promoter and antibiotic alternative against enteric pathogens in poultry.” World’s Poultry Science Journal 73, no. 3 (2017): 651-661.

Cox, C. M., Sumners, L. H., Kim, S., McElroy, A. P., Bedford, M. R., & Dalloul, R. A. (2010). Immune responses to dietary β-glucan in broiler chicks during an Eimeria challenge. Poultry science89(12), 2597-2607.

Ding, B.; Zheng, J.; Wang, X.; Zhang, L.; Sun; Xing, Q.; Pirone, A.; Fronte, B. Effects of dietary yeast betaβ-1,3-1,6-glucan on growth performance, intestinal morphology and chosen immunity parameters changes in Haidong chicks. Asian-Australas J. Anim. Sci. 2019, 32, 1558.

Guo, P.; Thomas, J.D.; Bruce, M.P.; Hinton, T.M.; Bean, A.G.; Lowenthal, J.W. The chicken TH1 response: Potential therapeutic applications of ChIFN-gamma. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 2013, 41, 389–396.

Guo, Y., Ali, R. A., & Qureshi, M. A. (2003). The influence of β‐glucan on immune responses in broiler chicks. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology25(3), 461-472.

Guo, Y.; Ali, R.A.; Qureshi, M.A. The influence of betaβ-glucan on immune responses in broiler chicks. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 2003, 25, 461–472.

Huff, G. R., Huff, W. E., Rath, N., & Tellez, G. (2006). Limited treatment with β-1, 3/1, 6-glucan improves production values of broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli. Poultry science85(4), 613-618.

Lowry, V.K.; Farnell, M.B.; Ferro, P.J.; Swaggerty, C.L.; Bahl, A.; Kogut, M.H. Purified betaβ-glucan as an abiotic feed additive up-regulates the innate immune response in immature chickens against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2005, 98, 309–318. 

Moon, S.H.; Lee, I.; Feng, X.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.; Ahn, D.U. Effect of Dietary BetaΒ-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat. Asian -Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 2016, 29, 384–389.

Morales-López, R., Auclair, E., Garcia, F., Esteve-Garcia, E., & Brufau, J. (2009). Use of yeast cell walls; β-1, 3/1, 6-glucans; and mannoproteins in broiler chicken diets. Poultry science, 88(3), 601-607.

Rajapakse, J.R.; Buddhika, M.D.; Nagataki, M.; Nomura, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Ikeue, Y.; Agatsuma, T. Effect of Sophy betaβ-glucan on immunity and growth performance in broiler chicken. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 2010, 72, 1629–1632.

Stier, H.; Ebbeskotte, V.; Gruenwald, J. Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast BetaΒ-1,3/1,6-D-glucan. Nutr. J. 2014, 13, 38.

Vetvicka, V.; Vetvickova, J. Natural immunomodulators and their stimulation of immune reaction: True or false? Anticancer. Res. 2014, 34, 2275–2282.

Yiannikouis A, Francois J, Poughon L. Alkali Extraction of β-D-Glucans from saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall and study of their adsorptive properties toward Zearalenone [J]. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52: 3666-3673.

Zhang, B., Guo, Y., & Wang, Z. (2008). The Modulating Effect of 棺-1, 3/1, 6-glucan Supplementation in the Diet on Performance and Immunological Responses of Broiler Chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences21(2), 237-244.

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