LEVEDURA BETA GLUCANA

Levedura Beta Glucan é um ‘modificador de resposta biológica’ aumentando a atividade do sistema imunológico. Sua função foi comprovada em diversas pesquisas.

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Como o beta glucano de levedura ajuda o sistema imunológico?

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A saúde imunológica é crucial para se manter saudável. Um sistema imunológico saudável é de grande importância para lidar com diferentes doenças ou enfermidades. Todos nós precisamos melhorar nosso sistema imunológico. O exercício regular ou a ingestão de algum produto natural ou artificial, direta ou indiretamente, estimula o sistema imunológico.
Substâncias naturais que melhoram o sistema imunológico são objeto de investigação nas últimas décadas. Uma ampla gama de produtos sintéticos e naturais está disponível no mercado e são descritos como tendo efeitos imunomoduladores. No entanto, apenas alguns produtos são provavelmente os mais bem estudados, e alguns interessantes são β-glucanos (Goodridge et al., 2009; Stier et al., 2014).

História dos β-glucanos como moduladores do sistema imunológico

Antes de identificar os β-glucanos como moduladores imunológicos, o cogumelo shiitake (Lentinus edodes) no Japão e o Ganoderma luciderm na China eram usados na medicina tradicional, estimulando o sistema imunológico do corpo. O efeito imunomodulador do β-glucano descoberto no século passado.
Since more than 6000 publications have published investigating the immune-modulation effect of the β-glucans, such as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory abilities, the β-glucans show immune-modulating effects on various organisms.
The results on humans and other animals like fish, rodents, invertebrates, and other farm animals are encouraging. Furthermore, other beneficial effects of β-glucans include healing wounds, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and cholesterol reduction (Novak & Vetvicka, 2008).

Importance of β-glucans in immune modulation

Various studies show that β-glucan têm o potencial de melhorar o sistema imunológico. A maioria das opções existe no mercado ao escolher vários produtos para estimular o sistema imunológico, e o β-glucano é um desses produtos. O β-glucano é uma fibra alimentar solúvel em água na parede celular de leveduras, fungos, bactérias, algas, líquenes e plantas (cevada, aveia, algas marinhas).
No entanto, os β-glucanos de diferentes fontes têm diferentes efeitos moduladores, mas não todos. Depende da estrutura química primária do β-glucano. Por exemplo, a celulose um (1,4)-glucano ligado a β não tem qualquer efeito imunomodulador. Embora os β-glucanos derivados de leveduras e fungos, (1,3)-β-ligados com pequenas cadeias de cadeias laterais (1,6)-β-ligadas sejam conhecidos por seu efeito imunomodulador.
Besides the primary chemical structure, the immune-modulating effect of β-glucan also depends on its solubility, molecular mass, tertiary structure, polymer charge, branching pattern, solution conformation, and its manufacturing, from isolation to purification affect its immune modulation efficiency (Vannucci et al., 2013).

Various sources of β-glucans

Various β-glucans function in multiple ways based on their sources; for example, cereal-based beta-glucan reduces LDL-cholesterol, healing wounds, skin injury. Still, there is not enough scientific evidence that such kind of β-glucans enhances the immune system.
Os β-glucanos derivados de cogumelos estão associados à redução dos níveis de colesterol, à melhoria da saúde cardíaca, à cicatrização de feridas e, em alguns casos, ao fortalecimento do sistema imunológico até certo ponto.

O β-glucano de levedura é encontrado abundantemente na parede celular da levedura de panificação (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). O β-glucano é um polissacarídeo solúvel em água composto por subunidades de glicose.


O β-glucano derivado de levedura, especificamente a levedura de padeiro Saccharomyces cerevisiae, é bem conhecido por aumentar a imunidade em comparação com a levedura de cerveja. Isso significa que nem todos os β-glucanos derivados de cepas de levedura são igualmente eficientes. Também ajuda na cicatrização de feridas. Para a modulação do sistema imunológico, a fonte de origem de β-glucano é essencial (Seo et al., 2019).

Mode of action β-glucans in immune system modulation

Interaction between Immune cells and β-glucans

The human gastrointestinal tract is a vital immune organ enriched with dendritic cells and macrophages immune cells. Thus, anything passing through the gastrointestinal tract immune cells recognizes it. These immune cells contain specialized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizing and responding to any structure related to harmful microbes.

Adaptive immunity

With the β-glucan ingestion, cell surface immune receptors, PRRs consider it a foreign substance and directly bind. Then, the binding between these two alert the immune cells and induce a series of biochemical reactions, which renders the immune system behave effectively. So, the innate immune system is a complex signaling network of germ-line encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The immune cells or other cells usually express to induce various cell signaling pathways. Thus it activates a wide range of signaling pathways. Mainly, it has physiological effects and modulates the immune system. These signaling pathways are related to a group of compounds responsible for physiological effects. Finally, β-glucans help the immune system to react effectively against harmful microorganisms during infection. Thus, β-glucans ensure safety and overall health benefits. Consequently, β-D-glucan triggers innate immune responses and develop adaptive immunity (Murphy et al., 2010; Novak & Vetvicka, 2008).

Yeast β-glucan is versatile in developing an adaptive immune system.

Initially, the yeast β-glucan triggered the interleukin-1β-(1L-1β) mediated cell signaling responses primarily through macrophages via dectin-1 signaling. Yeast β-glucan stimulates the effect on macrophages and shows strong immune modulation effects. Additionally, the yeast β-glucan interacts with microfold (M)-cells in the small intestine. Then, the M-cells take β-glucan and transport it to the immune cells present in Peyer’s patches from the intestine lumen. Finally, macrophages take up the yeast β-glucan, and it gets degraded. Eventually, it became available to the circulatory system and distributed systemically. Thus, yeast β-glucan are potential activators of the innate immune system that enhance the functional activity of immune cells. Finally, it activates the network of cell signaling pathways, which systemically develop adaptive immune responses against diseases (Murphy et al., 2010; Novak & Vetvicka, 2008).

Why choose yeast β-glucans for immune-modulatory effects?

While selecting the best and high-quality β-glucan, which is safe and effective in modulating the immune system, we need to consider some important points. Yeast β-glucan biological activity, mechanism of action, the chemical structure is well studied, and immune system functioning and supported by research.
Os β-glucanos derivados de leveduras estimulam o sistema imunológico a funcionar de forma eficiente, em vez de aumentá-lo. Ele permite que o sistema imunológico reconheça o patógeno estranho. Ele reconhece os patógenos microbianos e fagocita as células infecciosas e limita a propagação da doença. O β-glucano derivado de levedura é igualmente eficaz para pessoas de todas as idades, desde crianças até idosos. Também é eficaz na liberação do estresse em atletas e mulheres que passam por estresse e melhora a saúde física geral (Seo et al., 2019; Stier et al., 2014; Talbott & Talbot, 2012).

Referência

Goodridge, HS, Wolf, AJ, & Underhill, DM (2009). Reconhecimento de beta-glucano pelo sistema imunológico inato. Revisões Imunológicas, 230(1), 38–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.2009.00793.x
Murphy, E. A., Davis, J. M., & Carmichael, M. D. (2010). Immune modulating effects of β-glucan. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 13(6), 656–661. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833f1afb
Novak, M., & Vetvicka, V. (2008). β-Glucans, History, and the Present: Immunomodulatory Aspects and Mechanisms of Action. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 5(1), 47–57. https://doi.org/10.1080/15476910802019045
Seo, G., Hyun, C., Choi, S., Kim, Y. M., & Cho, M. (2019). The wound healing effect of four types of beta-glucan. Applied Biological Chemistry, 62(1), 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13765-019-0428-2
Stier, H., Ebbeskotte, V., & Gruenwald, J. (2014). Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1,3/1,6-D-glucan. Nutrition Journal, 13, 38. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-38
Talbott, S. M., & Talbott, J. A. (2012). Baker’s Yeast Beta-Glucan Supplement Reduces Upper Respiratory Symptoms and Improves Mood State in Stressed Women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 31(4), 295–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2012.10720441
Vannucci, L., Krizan, J., Sima, P., Stakheev, D., Caja, F., Rajsiglova, L., Horak, V., & Saieh, M. (2013). Immunostimulatory properties and antitumor activities of glucans. International Journal of Oncology, 43(2), 357–364. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2013.1974

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